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Our own worst enemy

Our Own Worst Enemy – Seven Key Tactics for Preventing Investment Missteps

For what I want to do I do not do, but what I hate I do.

Romans 7:15

In my own Christian walk over the decades, one of the biggest challenges in my life has not necessarily been the issue of knowing the right thing to do, but rather actually doing that right thing which I already know! The Bible often references this disconnect between “knowing” and “doing.” In Matthew 26:41, we read the oft quoted “The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.” Similarly, Romans 7:15 insightfully notes “For what I want to do I do not do, but what I hate I do.”

This propensity to know the right thing to do, but to do otherwise manifests itself when investing as well. Our piece, Matters of the Heart, discusses the pitfalls of emotion-based investing. The relatively new field of Behavioral Finance is predicated on the thesis that investors make sub-optimal decisions due to a number of common psychological tendencies. These behavioral shortcomings cause investors to make imprudent investment decisions, oftentimes enthusiastically buying at high market levels and despondently selling at low market levels. Investors find themselves doing the exact opposite of what they know they should do…buy low and sell high. In other words, Behavioral Finance teaches us that even when investors know the right thing to do, they oftentimes do otherwise. Sounds like something we might read in the Bible, yes?!

Behavioral economist, Dr. Richard Thaler, winner of the Nobel Prize, refers to people who always make rational economic decisions as mythical “Econs,” who do not really exist in real life. Real, flesh and blood humans, Thaler contends, are subject to emotions, biases, heuristics, etc. which cause us to make decision-making errors that Econs would never make. Benjamin Graham, the legendary economist, investor, and professor (Warren Buffett was his student!), summed up the challenge well, “The investor’s chief problem – and even his worst enemy – is likely to be himself.”

There are several key Behavioral Finance mistakes that investors make. With a) Loss Aversion, investors mistakenly overweight the pain of potential losses while underweighting the benefit of potential gains; b) Anchoring causes investors to cling to prior reference points, vainly longing for things to return to “normal” or to get back to “even,” while failing to adapt to changed market conditions; and c) Recency Bias, investors extrapolate the latest market direction, up or down, far into the future. While being finite does not mean being sinful, the limitations that behavioral finance identifies in all of us provides an opportunity for greed and fear to take advantage of our finite nature.

So, given that the Bible as well as the field of Behavioral Finance teaches us that, as humans, we are predisposed to do those things that we know that we should not do and to not do those things that we know that we should do, what measures can investors take to mitigate these behavioral errors, especially during these anxiety-provoking Pandemic times?

  1. Make a Written Plan – In our piece, What’s The Purpose?, we discussed the importance of an investor first determining the specific financial goal(s) in order to achieve a successful investment outcome. To increase the probability of achieving those financial goals, experts agree that having a specific, written plan to accomplish that goal(s) is critical. Then, referring back to that written document on a regular basis (e.g. quarterly), affords investors a helpful, consistent reminder to counter fluctuating emotions in the midst of market moves.
  2. Hire an Advisor – Certainly, hiring a financial advisor provides very important knowledge and expertise for investors. However, even beyond that, a financial advisor can serve as an important “personal trainer” that helps investors overcome bad habits and poor decisions. Also, an advisor can be an “accountability partner” to whom one must explain a significant financial decision before taking action. This can help keep investors from being swept up in market bubbles or panics.
  3. Automate – Investors should seek to systemize their investment activities as much as possible so that emotions do not affect their investment decisions. Automatic contributions to a retirement plan from one’s regular paycheck is a good example of a way to overcome behavioral finance weaknesses. Dollar Cost Averaging (DCA) is a systematic way to take emotions out of play by deploying a given dollar amount into investments on a predetermined schedule. Dollar Cost Withdrawals (DCW) does similarly for taking money out of investments. Likewise, a set rebalancing plan (calendar or percentage based) is an unemotional way to trim back investments at relative highs and redeploy the proceeds into other investments near relative lows.
  4. Employ Values-Based Investing – When investors see their investments as not only a means to achieving financial goals, but also goals of a “higher calling” (e.g. Biblically Responsible Investing), they are less likely to get caught up in bouts of market euphoria or despondency. When investors view their investments as “dual-purpose,” they are more likely to maintain a longer term perspective in the midst of gyrating emotions.
  5. “Bucket” Investments – The Behavioral Finance concept of “mental accounting” describes the financial mistakes people make by categorizing money into differing accounts and not considering wealth implications holistically when making decisions. This tendency, however, can also be used advantageously in the investor’s continuing fight against fear and greed. By separating investments into two categories of 1) “preserve wealth” (lower risk, lower return investments) and 2) “grow wealth” (higher risk, higher return investments), investors are more likely to maintain a long term investment strategy, even in the face of feelings brought on by market volatility. In Bear Market To Do List, we discussed the importance of having 6 to 24 months of living expenses held in safe, low-yielding cash, savings, or money market accounts in order to weather short-term market turbulence.
  6.  Utilize “Insurance” – Employing a strategy of rolling, deep out-of-the-money put options on broad equity indices can function like an insurance policy to help shield investors against catastrophic investment losses. This empowers investors to pursue a more prudent long-term investment strategy. Like insurance, however, this peace of mind does come with a deductible (the amount the put option is “out-of-the-money”) as well as the on-going cost of the premiums that must be paid to maintain the protection.
  7. Reframe Time Periods – The typical investor’s financial goals are measured not in days, weeks, or months, but rather years, decades, and generations. Therefore, while it is nearly impossible in our present-day, always-connected world to drown out the noise of financial market news, investors are well-served to commit to reviewing their investment portfolio’s performance only on a scheduled basis (e.g. quarterly). Further, in order to mitigate impulsive decisions, past investment performance should be viewed as long term only (five years or more, if available) and on a cumulative basis rather than annualized.
Dr. Erik Davidson, CFA

Dr. Erik Davidson, CFA

Dr. Erik Davidson, CFA, is the Chief Economic Advisor for Inspire Investing. Previously, Dr. Davidson served as the Chief Investment Officer for Wells Fargo Private Bank, overseeing more than $200B in assets. Dr. Davidson holds a doctorate degree from the DePaul University’s Kellstadt Graduate School of Business with his research focus in Behavioral Finance.

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*Advisory Services are offered through CWM Advisors, LLC dba Inspire, a Registered Investment Adviser with the SEC. All expressions of opinion are subject to change. This article is distributed for educational purposes, and it is not to be construed as an offer, solicitation, recommendation, or endorsement of any particular security, products, or services. Investors should talk to their financial advisor prior to making any investment decision.

Ill-Wind Investing

Ill-Wind Investing: Prudent or Profiteering?

As the Covid-19 crisis began to accelerate, my colleague proudly told me that he profited from buying Zoom stock. Another one of my friends boasted that he had made money selling short the stock market. Hearing these stories made me recall the words of the father from East of Eden, “Boys go out, and some die…do you think I could take a profit from that?”

“Boys go out, and some die…do you think I could take a profit from that?”

During late March, in a dark alley near Costco, there was a man selling toilet paper at marked-up prices. Seeing this man stirred in me two opposite reactions: anger for profiteering from other people’s suffering, and admiration for a man who was able to create a viable business model that both feeds his family and serves the community.

Which emotion should I feel when people make money from a pandemic: anger or admiration?

Ill-wind investing refers to making money on the account of “ill-winds” that sweep through a community, such as natural disasters, wars, or pandemics (Irvine, 2002). Is it morally wrong to make money from ill-winds?

Is it morally wrong to make money from ill-winds?

One simple way to argue against ill-wind investing would be to say that any activity that makes a profit from the suffering of others is morally wrong. While this may sound like a crystal clear rule to follow, it actually gets murky very quickly. For example, receiving an inheritance from an aunt who greatly suffered from Leukemia would be an example of a morally justified profit from the suffering of another person. Other murky examples include doctors who profit from ruptured spleens or boxers who receive money from knocking out their opponent.

Is it morally wrong to buy Zoom stock, short the stock market, or sell toilet paper at marked-up prices during a pandemic? One way to form a moral principle around this type of ill-wind investing would be to ask the question, “does this activity increase, have no effect, or diminish the suffering of others?” (Irvine, 2002).

Does this activity increase, have no effect, or diminish the suffering of others?

Regarding the Zoom stock, one could argue that it either has no effect, or actually diminishes the suffering of others. It is a good thing when the company of a needed product receives an increase in its stock value. Zoom’s access to capital, then, increases, helping the company expand its service to those in need.

Regarding shorting the stock market, one could argue all three cases. It may diminish the suffering of others by being a vehicle for greater price discovery. Price discovery, over a long period of time, helps to avoid destructive stock market bubbles. However, it may increase the suffering of others by encouraging a stock price drop that goes beyond price discovery. A stock market crash could then cause a panic that would cascade into business layoffs and premature retirement withdrawals.

Regarding selling toilet paper, it may diminish their suffering by being a provider of a needed commodity when every other provider, who is trying to be “fair,” has no more supply. It also may potentially increase the suffering of others by emptying the pockets of those who are at their most vulnerable financial state (perhaps unemployed, or furloughed).

Given that ill-wind investing is morally complex, Biblical wisdom, Holy Spirit discernment, and counsel from others is required. It is important to be fearful about making money from an event that is causing others to suffer. It is also important to look for ways to share any profit that is made with those who were not as fortunate.

“Your abundance at the present time should supply their need, so that their abundance may supply your need, that there may be fairness. As it is written, ‘Whoever gathered much had nothing left over, and whoever gathered little had no lack.’” 2 Corinthians 8:14-15, ESV.

There is a story about a man who would walk a mile to work everyday. His one mile walk was his favorite part of the day. One day he happened to look down at a gutter and found a five dollar bill. The man was so thrilled about finding the five dollar bill, that the next day he couldn’t help but peer into every gutter on his way to work. In fact, for the rest of the year, he spent most of his one mile walk staring at gutters.

Even if ill-wind investing is morally acceptable, if we do not watch our ways, we may actually spend our lives “staring at gutters” as we try and find ways to continue to make money from the ill-winds of global warming, pandemics, hurricanes, and droughts. And, if we are not careful, we may slip into a terrible place; namely, hoping that more ill-winds would happen so that we could make even more money.

If we are not careful, we may slip into a terrible place.

Investing is not just a matter of the mind and the wallet, but also of the heart and the community. When we invest in a business venture, it is important to consider the impact that it will have on our community and our hearts, as well as on our wallets. Do our investing opportunities diminish human suffering? When we invest, we should strive to enter into investing opportunities that bring about prosperity for both ourselves and our community.


REFERENCES

Irvine, W. B. (2002). Ill-Wind Investing: The Ethics of Wishing. Journal of Business Ethics, 35(1), 57–63. JSTOR.

Inspire Investing Meeting Needs Of Guatemalan Villagers During COVID-19 Pandemic

Inspire Investing Meeting Needs Of Guatemalan Villagers During COVID-19 Pandemic

Since 2018, Inspire has partnered with World Help and Hope of Life to adopt an impoverished village in Guatemala. The village of Colonia Tawayni, La Union is located high in the mountainous, remote coffee farming terrain of Guatemala and is accessible only by 4×4 vehicle on a hazardous dirt road. The village of 720 people, 450 of which are children, was in dire need of school and medical clinic repairs, clean water system improvements, and a church building for the recently converted believers to meet in and continue evangelism to their community.

Through investors choosing to invest with Inspire and align their investments with their faith, the project has been able to make rapid progress. The church build is completed, a clean water well established, and the school project is currently underway. However, the COVID-19 pandemic brought the project, and the entire country of Guatemala for that matter, to a screeching halt. The government ordered lockdown is so severe that people are not even permitted to leave their villages to buy desperately needed food and supplies.

Inspire recently received word that Colonia Tawayni had run completely out of food with no means to get more, and people were starving. Thankfully, our ministry partners Hope of Life received permission to take food to the mountain villages, including Colonia Tawayni. The need was so great, however, that even Hope of Life has run out of food to give as their food donation stockpile is being dispersed faster than it is being replenished.

For just $30, World Help is able to purchase, assemble and deliver a food care package that can feed a family of 2 adults and 4 children for 2 weeks (mask included of course, per Guatemala regulations). That means that for $9,600 we can feed the entire village of 160 families for one month.

Thanks to all of the institutions, advisors, and clients that are investing with Inspire, the Inspire Give50program has already been able to provide the entire village with 2 weeks of food to cover their immediate needs. Please be praying that this food gets safely delivered to the village, pray the Lord blankets his peace over these villagers during this frightening time, and pray that the virus subsides so the lockdown can be lifted. If you feel led, you can also donate directly to this food relief effort at this link here. $30 provides one family with food for a month and 100% of the donations are directed to this village through World Help.

How awesome is it that your investment account can be working toward your financial goals while also providing for the immediate needs of others during a desperate time?

Your investment dollars are hard at work!

$100M Ex-Ameriprise Team Says “So Glad” They Joined Inspire Advisors Christian RIA Platform

$100M Ex-Ameriprise Team Says “So Glad” They Joined Inspire Advisors Christian RIA Platform

Father-son $100M team left Ameriprise after 25 years to join Christian RIA firm Inspire Advisors to align their practice with their Christian faith.

San Jose, California, June 2nd, 2020 – Keith and Jacob Chandler, the father-son advisory team now at the helm of Inspire Advisors’ Palmdale, CA office say the Christ-centered culture is a big reason they joined Inspire Advisors a little over a year ago after spending more than 25 years at Ameriprise:

“What we love about Inspire Advisors is that we can now be part of a company that truly reflects our values and mission. We love that we can be part of a team of Christian professionals whose desire is to display excellence in their work and inspire transformation for God’s glory throughout the world. We are so glad that we joined the Inspire Advisors team and are excited to see what the Lord has in store for this business,” says the duo who manage over $100m of assets.

“Welcoming Keith and Jake to the Inspire Advisors family over this past year has truly been a blessing,” commented Robert Netzly, CEO of the Inspire Investing family of companies. “They are consummate professionals and exhibit God-glorifying excellence throughout their practice. We are honored to serve them and their clients as we work together to inspire transformation for God’s glory throughout the world with biblically responsible investing and planning advice.”

Biblically Responsible Investing Focus

The Inspire Advisors platform is purpose built from the ground up to support Christian financial advisors who want to run their practices with 100% biblically responsible investing (BRI) alignment, a growing conviction among financial advisors and their clients.

“When we looked across the RIA marketplace we could not find any national-brand RIA platform that was dedicated to biblically responsible investing,” said Netzly. “That’s a problem that we are solving with Inspire Advisors. There has to be a top-tier RIA firm that is sold out to the advancement of biblically responsible investing and serving the Christian advisors who want to run their practices for the glory of God.”

Financial professionals that join Inspire Advisors have access to Inspire’s deep bench of biblically responsible portfolios delivered in a turn-key, separately managed account (SMA) format, including customizable unified managed account (UMA) and robust tax-loss harvesting capabilities.

There are currently several dozen SMA strategies available to Inspire Advisors recruits and their clients, with strategies ranging from passive, index based portfolios to actively managed, tactical, sector rotation and other strategies. Some strategies are built using Inspire’s popular suite of biblical ETFs, while others are built using only individual stocks and can be customized for individual practices or client needs, giving advisors one of the most robust, widely diversified selection of biblically responsible investing portfolios available anywhere.

Powerhouse Investment Team

Inspire Advisors touts a powerhouse investment team backing up their portfolios that gives financial advisors instant credibility with investors both large and small. Inspire’s investment committee is led by Chief Investment Officer, Darrell Jayroe, CFA, CFP, CKA, who has served in senior portfolio management positions for over 20 years. Inspire’s Chief Economic Advisor, Dr. Erik Davidson, DBA, CFA, previously served as the Chief Investment Officer at Wells Fargo Private Bank overseeing $200 billion in assets and a team of 400 professionals. Inspire Investment Analyst, Shane Enete, CFA, previously oversaw hundreds of billions of institutional assets at firms Meketa and Brandes Investments, and currently shares his time as Professor of Finance at Biola University and heads up Biola University’s Inspire Research Institute for BRI. Such a world-class team provides advisors and their clients with institutional-level portfolio management and expertise to invest with confidence.

Inspire Advisors is a sister company of Inspire Investing, a global leader in the biblically responsible investing industry, and leverages the size and scale of the combined organization. Together, the Inspire family of companies manages over $658M AUM as of May 29th.

Christian financial advisors interested in exploring a relationship with Inspire Advisors can email inspire@inspireadvisors.com or visit www.inspireadvisors.com to learn more.

# # #

About the Inspire Investing family of companies

Founded in 2015 and headquartered in the Silicon Valley of California, Inspire Investing seeks to create meaningful impact in the lives of people across the globe by providing high quality, biblically aligned investments and financial advice that support Christian ministry and is a leading authority in the Biblically Responsible Investing (BRI) movement. For more information, visit www.inspireinvesting.com.

*Disclaimer: Investment advisory services offered through Inspire Advisors, LLC and CWM Advisors, LLC dba Inspire, both being Registered Investment Advisors with the SEC. CWM Advisors, LLC and Inspire Advisors, LLC are affiliates.

Media contact:
Eric Smyth
(831)382-6572
inspire@inspireadvisors.com


 
 
 
 
Inspire Advisors Logo

Christian RIA Inspire Advisors Grew AUM Despite Market Meltdown

Inspire Advisors, the Christian-focused Registered Investment Advisory (RIA) firm, grew assets under management (AUM) despite the COVID-19 selloff in stocks.

San Jose, California, May 18th, 2020 – Inspire Advisors, the Christian-focused RIA platform serving independent Christian financial advisors and their clients, saw total assets under management (AUM) grow during the first part of 2020, despite a steep selloff in stocks.

Inspire Advisors began the year with $152M in total AUM. At the end of March, Inspire Advisors’ AUM was 14% higher at $174M, even after the stock market sold off more than 30%. As the market rebounded throughout April and new advisors and their assets continued to flow onto Inspire Advisors’ biblically responsible platform, AUM continued to climb to $207.9M as of May 18th, 37% higher than the start of the year.

 “We continued to see strong inflows during the market selloff,” commented Robert Netzly, CEO of the Inspire family of companies. “We successfully recruited new advisors and our existing advisors are winning new accounts. The growth and momentum of the biblically responsible investing movement proved to outweigh the COVID-19 driven crisis in terms of net AUM growth in our case. Christian advisors and their clients are hungry for a top-tier firm that is dedicated to biblically responsible investing and planning advice. We are here to serve them, no matter what the market decides to do tomorrow.”

Inspire Advisors is a sister company of Inspire Investing, a global leader in the biblically responsible investing industry, and leverages the size and scale of the combined organization. Together, the Inspire family of companies manages over $612.8M AUM as of May 18th.

Christian financial advisors interested in exploring a relationship with Inspire Advisors can email inspire@inspireadvisors.com or visit www.inspireadvisors.com to learn more.

# # #

About the Inspire Investing family of companies
Founded in 2015 and headquartered in the Silicon Valley of California, Inspire Investing seeks to create meaningful impact in the lives of people across the globe by providing high quality, biblically aligned investments and financial advice that support Christian ministry and is a leading authority in the Biblically Responsible Investing (BRI) movement. For more information, visit www.inspireinvesting.com.

* Disclaimer: Investment advisory services offered through Inspire Advisors, LLC and CWM Advisors, LLC dba Inspire, both being Registered Investment Advisors with the SEC. CWM Advisors, LLC and Inspire Advisors, LLC are affiliates.

Media contact:
Eric Smyth
(831)382-6572
inspire@inspireadvisors.com


 
 
 
 
Amazon Logo

Amazon.com Board Recommends Vote Against Viewpoint Diversity

In its recently released Notice of 2020 Annual Meeting of Shareholders & Proxy Statement, the Board of Amazon.com recommended that shareholders vote against a shareholder resolution on viewpoint diversity. The Board’s opposition suggests that an intolerant bias is alive and well in the leadership ranks of one of the world’s largest and most influential corporations.

The text of the proposed resolution, officially titled “ITEM 12—Shareholder Proposal Requesting a Report On Viewpoint Discrimination” located on page 41 of the document, states the importance of preventing discrimination based on religious, social or political views. If implemented, it would provide transparency to shareholders on the “range of risks and costs associated with discrimination against different social, political and religious viewpoints”.

The resolution reads as follows:

“Whereas, Shareholders of Amazon.com, Inc. (“Amazon”) invest in the company to receive maximum return on their ownership investment in Amazon, without the costs and risks associated with Amazon restricting specific social, political, or religious views.

Whereas, any decision by Amazon to either endorse or reject social, political, or religious views may alienate customers, harm the company’s reputation, and negatively impact business performance.

Whereas, the City of Seattle, the State of Washington, the United States, and several International Conventions prohibit discrimination against religious groups and beliefs, and the City of Seattle prohibits discrimination against political ideology.

Resolved: Shareholders request that Amazon issue a report, at reasonable cost and omitting proprietary information, evaluating the range of risks and costs associated with discriminating against different social, political, and religious viewpoints.”[1]

Amazon.com has taken great pains to portray themselves as champions of diversity, and have made public statements about their supposed commitment to respecting diverse viewpoints. For example, their website proclaims that  “diversity and inclusion are good for business—and more fundamentally—simply right.”[2]

AMAZON.COM DIVERSITY ONLY SKIN DEEP

This begs the question, if Amazon.com is such a believer in diversity, why would their Board recommend that shareholders vote against a resolution that would provide “a full evaluation of viewpoint bias and associated risks to ensure that Amazon is making balanced decisions and that it is acting consistent with its commitment to diversity?”2

The simple answer is because Amazon’s Board lacks diversity to the point that they cannot even see that a problem exists. On the surface, Amazon’s Board of Directors seems rather diverse: Of the ten Directors, five are women and five are men; there are two people of color; and they each have varied backgrounds in business, academia, law and so forth. However, this appearance of diversity is superficial. A look under the surface into the ideological perspectives of Amazon’s Board reveals a monolithically homogenous worldview committed to advancing a progressive-liberal political and social agenda.

An examination of the personal political contributions of each individual Amazon.com board member tells a striking story. Of all the independent board members who made non-corporate political contributions in the Trump vs. Hillary 2016 election cycle, all of them donated to liberal, Democratic Party candidates, Political Action Committees (PACs) or other liberal political action groups, according to data from campaignmoney.com.[3]

Prominent recipients of donations given personally by Amazon’s Board members included Hillary For America, Hillary Victory Fund, Friends of Schumer, Victory Now PAC, ActBlue, and the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee. No conservative groups. No Republican, Libertarian or Green Party candidates. Just one flavor of super-non-diversity.

AMAZON.COM VIEWPOINT CENSORSHIP

Plainly stated, the current Amazon.com “commitment to diversity” is only a commitment to embracing a progressive-liberal viewpoint about diversity. Conservative, mainstream perspectives are not welcome. Case in point, numerous well-regarded, socially conservative, faith-based non-profits have been officially removed from the “Amazon Smile” charity platform, preventing Amazon.com customers who want to donate to those charities through their Amazon Smile purchases from doing so.[4]

This charity censorship relies upon a list provided by an extremely partisan and discredited non-profit group operating under the misleading name “Southern Poverty Law Center”, or SPLC for short. The SPLC has been under intense fire in recent years as sexual abuse, racism and financial scandal has been exposed at the highest levels of the organization and reported in major media outlets across the nation.[5] Other organizations, such as Twitter,[6] the US Department of Defense, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation,[7] have ended their relationship with the SPLC because of their glaring moral and ethical failures, but not Amazon.com.

SHAREHOLDERS’ RIGHT TO TRANSPARENT REPORTING

Shareholders are not asking Amazon.com to somehow become a stalwart defender of conservative values. All they are requesting is that Amazon.com provide a transparent reporting on its stated commitment to diversity, something that the Board of Directors should be quick to embrace as it is their fiduciary responsibility to ensure the company is living up to its promises.

But, ironically, Amazon’s board is fighting against this resolution for viewpoint diversity put forward by the very shareholders they are supposed to represent.

To be clear, I believe Amazon.com has every right to use their corporate influence to promote whatever agendas they see fit, including progressive liberalism. But don’t try to hide it. If Amazon’s leadership is committed to a progressive-liberal agenda, then shareholders have a right to know about it, as well as the potential risks that position could cause by alienating customers who hold a different view. This is basic corporate responsibility. Denying shareholders material information that can affect their investment is not just bad-form, it is unethical.

Amazon.com shareholders should be pounding the table for access to transparent reporting on Amazon’s performance regarding viewpoint diversity or lack thereof, and the risks associated with that performance. If you are an Amazon.com shareholder, you have the right to cast your vote on “ITEM 12—Shareholder Proposal Requesting a Report On Viewpoint Discrimination,” and I would encourage you to exercise your right, no matter which way you vote.

[1] Amazon.com Notice of 2020 Annual Meeting of Shareholders & Proxy Statement: https://s2.q4cdn.com/299287126/files/doc_financials/2020/ar/updated/2020-Proxy-Statement.pdf

[2] https://www.aboutamazon.com/our-company/our-positions

[3] https://www.campaignmoney.com/

[4] https://www.christianpost.com/news/amazon-removes-conservative-legal-group-charity-smile-program-splc-hate-group-label.html

[5] https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/the-reckoning-of-morris-dees-and-the-southern-poverty-law-center

[6] https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/op-eds/twitter-dumps-southern-poverty-law-center-stops-making-hate-pay

[7] https://www.christianpost.com/news/amazon-removes-conservative-legal-group-charity-smile-program-splc-hate-group-label.html

Quarantine Image

Using Behavioral Finance To Understand The Necessity Of Quarantine

With every drop in GDP from the quarantine, my stomach drops, as well. I can’t help but ask myself, “is this the right way to go? As a Christian, I would like to submit to the authority of the government (Romans 13), but what if their policies are overly destructive, like cutting off our hand to fix a paper cut? What about the idea of ‘herd immunity’ where we are all exposed to the virus, all-at-once, and get done with it? With no more curves to flatten in the future?”

There has to be a better way than quarantine.

Even though I really have no valid voice in questioning the policies of the CDC, I will provide my perspective as a finance professor. Looking at behavioral finance may actually provide evidence in favor of the quarantine. For many years, I have conducted the following behavioral finance thought experiment with my students from recent Nobel Prize winner in economics, Richard Thaler (Thaler & Ganser, 2015). 

Please respond to the following two scenarios:

A. Suppose by attending a lecture you have exposed yourself to a rare fatal disease. If you contract the disease you will die a quick and painless death sometime next week. The chance you will get the disease is 1 in 1,000. We have a single dose of an antidote for this disease that will sell to the highest bidder. If you take this antidote the risk of dying from the disease goes to zero. What is the most you would be willing to pay for this antidote? (If you are short on cash we will lend you the money to pay for the antidote at a zero rate of interest with thirty years to pay it back.)

B. Researchers at the university hospital are doing some research on the same rare disease. They need volunteers who would be willing to simply walk into a room for five minutes and expose themselves to the same 1 in 1,000 risk of getting the disease and dying a quick and painless death in the next week. No antidote will be available. What is the least amount of money you would demand to participate in this research study?

Consistent with what Richard Thaler found in his experiments, my students tended to have dramatically different responses between scenarios A and B. In fact, many of my students would refuse to participate in scenario B (even though it was a thought experiment). Having dramatically different responses to scenario A and B is known as the endowment effect.

The endowment effect has applications in finance by showing that sellers often think that what they own is worth more than its true fair market price simply because it is owned by them (i.e., it has become a part of their endowment). A classic example of this is when investors hold onto stock losers too long (Kalunda & Mbaluka, 2012).

This same effect may explain why a preemptive quarantine is the best strategy for policymakers to enact. If everyone was asked to essentially become exposed to the Covid-19 virus all-at-once, for the sake of Herd immunity, that would be very similar to asking them to participate in scenario B. Put another way, herd immunity is similar to scenario B since it asks people to voluntarily expose themselves to a rare disease in order to be compensated in the form of higher future expected economic wealth for our country. The final result of this would be, just like with scenario B, a refusal by a majority of people, and these people would likely self-quarantine.

Quarantine does not ask people to enter into scenario B.

A delayed self-quarantine is a much more disastrous scenario than an early, government sanctioned quarantine for the following reasons: 

  • The delay in quarantine would increase the number of cases, which would then overwhelm the healthcare system, causing thousands of people to die without hospital beds or sufficient care.
  • A very similar economic loss would occur (perhaps worse) than if the government sanctioned a preemptive quarantine.
  • Having both the hospital system become overrun and the government entities enact a system that people will fundamentally not follow would cause a deep distrust in two of the most important institutions in our society. This would cause a rip in our social fabric. 

Our current policy does not ask people to be a part of scenario B. This is good. It means that some level of faith is able to be maintained in both our health-care system and in the government’s authority; even while our economies experience heavy losses. 

While I may agree, or disagree, with the policies of the kingdoms of this world, as a Christian, I am called to seek His Kingdom first (Matthew 6:33). Through this Covid-19 crisis, God’s Kingdom has not experienced any drop in heavenly GDP. In fact, His Kingdom is likely advancing at a more rapid rate than before, as our idols of self-autonomy and independence are toppled. 

Which kingdom do I want to prosper more? If I am desperate for my kingdom to prosper, and mildly interested in God’s Kingdom to prosper, then I am not walking as Jesus calls me to walk.

Which kingdom do I want to prosper more?

During this time, as good, or bad, human policies come and go, the words of Jesus should be at the forefront of my mind:

“In the world you will have tribulation. But take heart; I have overcome the world.” (John 16:33, ESV)”


REFERENCES

Kalunda, E., & Mbaluka, P. (2012). Test of endowment and disposition effects under prospect theory on decision-making process of individual investors at the Nairobi securities Exchange, Kenya.

Thaler, R. H., & Ganser, L. J. (2015). Misbehaving: The making of behavioral economics. WW Norton New York.

The Weapons We Fight With

The Weapons We Fight With

The weapons we fight with are not the weapons of the world. On the contrary, they have divine power to demolish strongholds.

2 Corinthians 10:4

Note – As we comment on the current economic and market environment, it is always with the full understanding that the Coronavirus Crisis is first and foremost a humanitarian one. Therefore, our hearts groan as we “weep with those who weep” (Romans 12:15), and we cling to the promise that “He heals the broken-hearted and binds up their wounds.” (Psalm 147:3)

With the abrupt end of the longest bull market in the history of the U.S. stock market, investors are now understandably worried about the probable depth and length of the current bear market in which we find ourselves. So, let’s take a look at this bear market in the context of the history of prior bear markets.

So far, the current stock market’s worst drawdown from its February 19 peak (S&P 500 close of 3386) was its March 23 nadir (S&P 500 close of 2237) for a loss of 33.9%. With the recent rebound, as of March 31 (S&P 500 close of 2585), the stock market is now down “only” 23.7%. While it is certainly possible that further downside awaits, our view is that the lows we have experienced are closer to the bottom than to the top. Here is our rationale:

Referring to history, the U.S. stock market has seen deeper bear markets than what we have seen so far with this downturn. The 2007 – 2009 Financial Crisis saw a decline of 56.8% in the S&P 500 and the 2000 – 2002 Technology Bust, exacerbated by the September 11 terrorist attack, recorded a 49.2% peak-to-trough loss. The 1973 – 1974 Oil Embargo Crash was 48.2% and the Great Crash of 1930 – 1932 saw a devastating loss of 82.8%. However, each of these more substantive stock market drops listed was preceded by periods of exuberant valuation bubbles in stocks themselves or in housing as seen in the Financial Crisis.

Though we had expressed concerns about the record length of the most recent bull market and economic expansions with valuations starting to show signs of excess (see Trouble), we were not of the view that equities had reached bubble territory. In our opinion, the cause for this current bear market was the exogenous event of the Coronavirus outbreak. Therefore, assuming that this shock will be addressed, it is probable that this stock slide will not be as dramatic as those listed above. As an example of the impact of an exogenous event, the heightened Cold War tensions preceding the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1961 – 1962 led to a drop in the S&P 500 of 28.0%. Moreover, even with the tragic loss of life and economic destruction of World War II, that exogenous event caused the S&P 500 to drop “only” by 42.3% during the 1939 – 1942 bear market.

The current crisis environment is increasingly being described as one of “wartime.” Given the potential fatalities, the disruptive impact to “normal” life, and the economic damage, this “battle” metaphor seems warranted. The Bible contains many stories of wars and battles and oftentimes employs combat imagery, including Ephesians 6’s reference to “putting on the full armor of God.”

Christians know from 2 Corinthians 10:4 that the weapons with which we are called to fight with are “not the weapons of the world.” Specifically, we are called to employ spiritual weapons which “have divine power to demolish strongholds.” During this time of anguish and loss, believers can be praying and fasting for the demolition of the Coronavirus stronghold.

Beyond those spiritual weapons, there are many other God-ordained “weapons” that are being brought to bear against the “invisible enemy” that humanity faces together. By themselves, none of these weapons are sufficient, but in combination they can prevail to the benefit of our collective physical and economic health.

Healthcare Weapons – Many of our family, friends, and neighbors are serving on the front lines of this war as doctors, nurses, etc. by delivering skilled and compassionate medical care to the sick and dying. These members of our communities are putting themselves in harm’s way for our safety. They should forever be remembered as heroes for their selfless service during this time.

Medical Science Weapons – Never underestimate the power of human ingenuity when brought to bear against what might appear to be insurmountable challenges. At this very moment, scientists, doctors, researchers, pharmaceutical firms, biotech companies, hospitals, medical device manufacturers, medical testing companies, and many others around the world are working around the clock to bring quickly to market the medical solutions needed to end this pandemic crisis.

Behavioral Weapons – By now, we are all too familiar with the concepts of “social distancing,” “shelter in place,” etc. While inconvenient and confining, these constraints are proving to be effective in curbing the transmission of the virus as well as “flattening the curve” to accommodate medical capacity constraints.

Monetary Weapons – The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States has taken its own wartime efforts to mitigate the inevitable economic damage of the Coronavirus. By pushing the overnight Federal Funds target rate to below ¼% and reinstituting Quantitative Easing with $4 Trillion of bond purchases, the Fed has loosened its monetary policy spigots wide open.

Fiscal Weapons – With last week’s signing of the Phase 3 $2.1 Trillion stimulus package, there is little doubt that the nation’s checkbook is open in the fight to save the economy. While a recession for the country has become almost a foregone conclusion, the battle lines are now being drawn with payments to households, loans to small businesses, etc., in an effort to keep the economy from entering a depression. Also, many regulatory red-tape constraints are rapidly being cut to free up companies to conduct business as needed to meet the marketplace needs.

This list of weapons, when used in combination, can give us confidence that we will prevail against the Coronavirus enemy. Lives will be saved, the economy will recover, and our collective “pursuit of happiness” continued. We will get through this!

So, while there is likely more turbulence yet to come in this epic battle against the unseen enemy, investors can take comfort at the multitude and strength of the “weapons” being brought to bear against it. As stewards of God’s financial capital, we should recognize our responsibility–in fact our “calling” (Luke 19 Parable of the Talents)–not to cower in fear but rather to look for opportunities to deploy capital prudently in this time of need. Getting practical, in Bear Market “To Do” List – P.E.A.C.E., we suggested Dollar Cost Averaging (DCA) as a strategy to ease cash into this turbulent stock market. Finally, as followers of Christ, let us pray together earnestly for that “divine power to demolish strongholds.”

Dr. Erik Davidson, CFA

Dr. Erik Davidson, CFA

Dr. Erik Davidson, CFA, is the Chief Economic Advisor for Inspire Investing. Previously, Dr. Davidson served as the Chief Investment Officer for Wells Fargo Private Bank, overseeing more than $200B in assets. Dr. Davidson holds a doctorate degree from the DePaul University’s Kellstadt Graduate School of Business with his research focus in Behavioral Finance.

LinkedIn

*Advisory Services are offered through CWM Advisors, LLC dba Inspire, a Registered Investment Adviser with the SEC. All expressions of opinion are subject to change. This article is distributed for educational purposes, and it is not to be construed as an offer, solicitation, recommendation, or endorsement of any particular security, products, or services. Investors should talk to their financial advisor prior to making any investment decision.

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Important CARES Act Highlights Investors Should Know About

The CARES Act highlights contain provisions that will affect US businesses and the stock market in a big way, making it important for investors to pay attention and be educated about what is in the CARES Act and what it means for their family and their portfolio. To help shed some light on the CARES Act highlights that investors should know about, Inspire Investing has partnered with our tax advisors at Hayashi and Wayland to provide the following information about the CARES Act. (This information is provided for educational purposes only and should not be considered as tax or investment advice. Please consult your personal tax or investment advisor to discuss your individual situation.)

The $2.2 trillion Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security “CARES Act” represents the largest economic relief package in American history[1].  The CARES Act contains sweeping provisions that have powerful implications for American families and the US economy at large, both because of the gargantuan amount of money that will be flooding the US economy and also because of certain investment related directives that temporarily change the rules for retirement accounts, charitable giving and more.

The CARES Act was designed to offer assistance to individual taxpayers, business owners, and the entire economy to try to revive itself from the downturn caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the business closures, layoffs and economic suffering that has followed.  This relief plan will offer assistance to tens of millions of American households affected by the coronavirus pandemic. 

We have outlined the CARES Act highlights below: 

INDIVIDUAL PROVISIONS

One-time, non-taxable payments

These payments will be made to taxpayers whose adjusted gross income is under $75,000 (single), $112,500 (head of household) and $150,000 (married). Single or head of household taxpayers will get $1,200.  Married taxpayers will get $2,400.  In addition, for each child 16 years old or younger, you will get an additional $500.  Above these income figures the payment decreases. Single taxpayers earning $99,000 or married taxpayers who have no children and earn $198,000 will not receive any payments.  A family with two children will no longer be eligible for payments if its income surpassed $218,000.  Payments received are not considered taxable income to the recipients.

You will not be able to get a payment if someone claims you as a dependent, even if you are an adult.  In any given family and in most instances, everyone must have a valid Social Security number in order to be eligible.  There is an exception for members of the military.

You can find your adjusted gross income on Line 8b of the 2019 1040 Federal tax return.  And if you already filed your 2019 taxes and provided direct deposit information for a refund, it will be deposited that way into your account.  If you have not filed your 2019 tax return, your 2018 return will be used for determination.  If you would prefer to have your 2019 tax return considered over your 2018 tax return we would recommend that you file 2019 as soon as possible.

If you are ineligible for the payment due to your income being in excess of the limits for 2019, you may benefit once you file your 2020 taxes because the payment is technically an advance on a tax credit that is available for 2020. 

It is not clear yet when and how physical checks will be mailed to those who will require that.  Information from different sources at this time say anytime from the end of April to the end of May.

Retirement Accounts

For the calendar year 2020, no one will be required to take a required minimum distribution from any retirement account. If you are under age 59 ½ and need to make a withdrawal due to the outbreak, the usual 10 percent penalty is waived for distributions up to $100,000 and you are able to spread the income taxes associated with this distribution over 3 years. You can also put the funds back into the account within 3 years even though the amount would exceed normal contribution limits.  These exceptions only apply to coronavirus related withdrawals.

Charitable Contributions

The bill makes a new deduction available for up to $300 of charitable deductions.  All taxpayers can derive benefits from making up to $300 of charitable deductions even if you don’t take an itemized deduction. In addition, there is no cap on the amount of charitable deductions you can take as an itemized deduction for 2020.  

Unemployment Compensation

The Federal Government will provide a temporary Federal Pandemic Unemployment Compensation (FPUC) through July 31, 2020.  This compensation is $600 per week for any worker eligible for state or federal unemployment compensation benefits. The FPUC would be paid in addition to and at the same time as regular state or federal unemployment benefits. States have the option of providing the entire amount in one payment or sending the extra portion separately, but it must all be done on the same weekly basis.

Mortgages and Foreclosure Actions

Starting March 18, 2020, most mortgages are prohibited from foreclosure actions for 60 days for borrowers who request it and can demonstrate a COVID-19 related hardship.

Eviction Proceedings

Landlords are subject to a 120-day moratorium on filing eviction proceedings for the non-payment of rent.  Unpaid rent will continue to accrue, but landlords may not charge fees or assess fines.

BUSINESS PROVISIONS

Payroll Tax Deferral, Reduction, and Credits

Employers are eligible for a 50 percent refundable payroll tax credit on wages paid up to $10,000 during the crisis. It would be available to employers whose businesses were disrupted due to virus-related shutdowns and firms experiencing a decrease in gross receipts of 50 percent or more when compared to the same quarter last year. The credit is available for employees retained but not currently working due to the crisis for firms with more than 100 employees, and for all employee wages for firms with 100 or fewer employees.

Employer-side Social Security payroll tax payments may be delayed until January 1, 2021, with 50 percent owed on December 31, 2021, and the other half owed on December 31, 2022. 

Paycheck Protection Program

This program administered through the Small Business Administration is meant to help small businesses (fewer than 500 employees) impacted by the pandemic and economic downturn to make payroll and cover other expenses from February 15 to June 30. Notably, small businesses may take out loans up to $10 million—limited to a formula tied to payroll costs—and can cover employees making up to $100,000 per year. Loans may be forgiven if a company uses the loan for payroll, interest payments on mortgages, rent, and utilities and would be reduced proportionally by any reduction in employees retained compared to the prior year and a 25 percent or greater reduction in employee compensation.

Other parts of the wide-sweeping funding bill include:

  • $150 billion for local governments for expenditures incurred due to the public health emergency
  • $8.8 billion in additional funding for Child Nutrition Programs in order to ensure children receive meals while school is not in session
  • $450 million in assistance for banks so they can continue to assist those Americans most in need
  • $30.75 billion for an Education Stabilization Fund for states, school districts and institutions of higher education for costs related to coronavirus
  • $4.3 billion to support federal, state, and local public health agencies to prevent, prepare for, and respond to the coronavirus, including the purchase of personal protective equipment; laboratory testing to detect positive cases; contact tracing to identify additional cases, and infection control and mitigation at the local level to prevent the spread of the virus
  • $2 billion in direct allocation to state and local Community Development Block Grants that must be allocated within 30 days of enactment of the bill

Who Really Cares?

Because of its size and scope, the CARES Act will likely make an historic, indelible mark upon the US economy and the hundreds of millions of Americans who both power and rely upon that economy. As such, investors should be educated about the highlights of the CARES Act and how it will affect them.

Additionally, as faith-based investors we should remind ourselves that although $2.2 trillion dollars is a staggering amount of money, our hope and trust is not in government stimulus but in the one true God who is sovereign over governments, and who is infinitely more great, powerful and yes, even more caring than the CARES Act.

These are unprecedented times full of uncertainty and trials of many kinds. There are many real reasons to fear and one can hardly be faulted for feeling afraid amidst the swirl of global pandemic. But for anyone finding themselves under a cloud of anxiety, the Bible reminds us to “cast all your anxieties upon Him for He cares for you” (1 Peter 5:7). And when you find yourself worrying about your earthly treasure, Jesus offers a peace that passes all understanding, and an “inheritance that is imperishable, undefiled, and unfading, kept in heaven for you, who by God’s power are being guarded through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. In this you rejoice, though now for a little while, if necessary, you have been grieved by various trials, so that the tested genuineness of your faith—more precious than gold that perishes though it is tested by fire—may be found to result in praise and glory and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ” (1 Peter 1:4-7).

Jesus cares for you. No matter what.

Trust in Him. No matter what.

[1] https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/27/house-passes-2-trillion-coronavirus-stimulus-bill-sends-it-to-trump.html

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Bear Market “To Do” List – P.E.A.C.E.

Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you. Not as the world gives do I give to you. Let not your hearts be troubled, neither let them be afraid.

John 14:27

As a follow-up to my piece, Troubles, a few weeks ago, I offer you some of my further thoughts on navigating the current market environment as a biblically responsible investor.

From an economic perspective, the Coronavirus pandemic is both a demand-shock and a supply-shock. So, as opposed to a significant hurricane or blizzard or even the 9/11 terrorist attack, this exogenous event may not simply push back economic activity, but rather may actually destroy it. Therefore, it is highly likely we have already entered a recession. Monetary and fiscal stimulus are critical components for an economic recovery. They must be done. However, in and of themselves, these economic policy levers are not enough. The new health concerns that have emerged must be addressed over the coming months, into the next flu season, and for years thereafter. Further, consumer and business confidence must be restored. This will simply take time and there are no short-cuts around it. Lastly, while we all long for a return to “normal,” it is likely that when we do emerge from this crisis (and we will!), life and the economy will be different than it was before. Specifically, our day-to-day lives and the economic environment will be changed in terms of travel, social interaction, entertainment, health care, the social safety net, politics, globalization, etc.

As we face these challenges, we must remember that it is buried very deep within our human nature to want to take action in the face of adversity. Especially in times like these, our natural behavioral instincts (incl. survival and herding) activate into high gear and we rally under the banner of “Don’t just sit there—do something!” Against that instinct, however, the Bible gives us the challenging guidance to “Be still, and know that I am God” (Psalm 46:10). It is almost as if our command as believers is counterintuitively to “Don’t just do something—sit there!”

In our hearts, we know that this is wise instruction, but it is a tough pill to swallow as the stock market plunges. Fortunately, most investment experts wisely support this concept of prudence by advocating a mindset of calmness, resolution, and perspective. However, many times their advice is offered as a “To Don’t List,” e.g., “Don’t panic!” “Don’t sell!” “Don’t abandon your plan!” “Don’t capitulate!” or “Don’t liquidate!” All these are wise guidelines, but they go against our very strong human reflex to actually do something!

Therefore, in contrast to a “To Don’t List,” I share with you a list of proactive actions that can be taken by investors right now. This is based on my 35 years of investment experience, but equally on my 45 years of being a follower of Jesus Christ. This Bear Market “To Do List” is called “P.E.A.C.E.”

P.E.A.C.E.

Pray: Before anything else, let’s be sure to pray. Let’s be on our knees crying out to God for healing, comfort, and provision for those who have been affected by the Coronavirus. Let’s pray and fast in support of the global forces of human ingenuity, science, and wisdom being brought to bear against this modern-day pestilence. Lastly, let’s pray that through this adversity, many will come into a personal relationship with God. Praying is something we can “do.”

Engage: Engagement is something that we can definitely do in this environment. Even if they are not afflicted by the Coronavirus, so many around us have been impacted adversely. Within the proper protocols of “social distancing,” let’s engage with our family, friends, and community who need our assistance—neighbors who need to be checked on, seniors who need some shopping done, or maybe some health-care or emergency-services workers who need help with their out-of-school children. Let’s look for ways to support local businesses and their employees who are suffering dramatic downturns in their revenues. How can we support those in our communities who are most economically vulnerable? Engage is something we all can “do.”

Assistance: Unfortunately, economic downturns often lead to a significant decline in charitable giving—just when the needs are at their greatest. Therefore, something that we can “do” is to maintain, if not even increase, our donations to our church, community organizations, medical-research charities, etc. They need it now more than ever. Assistance is something we all can “do.”

Cash: In all market environments, bull and bear, one essential thing that investors must “do” is ensure that they hold an adequate amount of cash. This cushion mitigates the risk of having to “sell into a hole” during a market downturn when money is needed to cover expenses. Most financial planning experts recommend that anywhere from 6 to 24 months of living expenses be held in safe, low-yielding cash, savings, or money market accounts. If an investor does not currently have that amount of money set aside, then now is the time to do it, even though the market has sold off so dramatically. However, even in such a volatile market environment, investors should be cautious about holding too much cash, especially with current interest rates so low. Remember that at 0.25% per year, an investor is on course to double her money in 288 years! Having the right amount of cash—not too little, but not too much—that is another thing that investors can “do” in this market environment.

Ease into the stock market: In these trying times, our “fight or flight” instincts are particularly pronounced. So while many investors are grappling with their “flight” impulses, others are engaging with their desire to “fight,” i.e., buy at these significantly depressed levels. Sometimes this is likened to trying to catch a falling knife. From our perspective, the stock market’s downside risk is still substantial. However, at -30% from the all-time high and with valuations much more attractive now, we believe that we are likely closer to the bottom than the top. Further, being a provider of investment capital in such dire times also meets a higher, noble purpose. Therefore, what investors can “do” if they have cash ready to be deployed is start easing into the market. A “dollar cost averaging” (DCA) strategy is a good method to minimize the emotional toils of a turbulent market by committing to invest a set dollar amount on a predetermined schedule, come what may. For those investors who are already fully invested, there is still something that they can “do,” namely rebalance. In rebalancing, investors make adjustments to their portfolio at the margin to bring it back to its target percentage allocations. In other words, trimming down (not selling out completely) some of those investments in asset categories that have done relatively well (e.g., bonds) and redeploying the proceeds into asset categories that have done relatively poorly (e.g., stocks). These are some prudent things that investors can “do” to ease into the stock market in the face of the sell-off.

In conclusion, I urge you to keep the faith as you grapple with your “To Don’t” and “To Do” lists under these stressful conditions. It affects all of us! Even Paul wrote, “For what I want to do I do not do, but what I hate I do” (Romans 7:15)!

And when grip of fear tightens, just remember the promise we have received:

Come to me, all who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls.

Matthew 11:28-29

Dr. Erik Davidson, CFA

Dr. Erik Davidson, CFA

Dr. Erik Davidson, CFA, is the Chief Economic Advisor for Inspire Investing. Previously, Dr. Davidson served as the Chief Investment Officer for Wells Fargo Private Bank, overseeing more than $200B in assets. Dr. Davidson holds a doctorate degree from the DePaul University’s Kellstadt Graduate School of Business with his research focus in Behavioral Finance.

LinkedIn

*Advisory Services are offered through CWM Advisors, LLC dba Inspire, a Registered Investment Adviser with the SEC. All expressions of opinion are subject to change. This article is distributed for educational purposes, and it is not to be construed as an offer, solicitation, recommendation, or endorsement of any particular security, products, or services. Investors should talk to their financial advisor prior to making any investment decision.